Penguins are amphibian, flightless birds that are highly adapted to life in the water. Their apparent tuxedo-like appearance is called countershading, a form of camouflage that helps keep them safe in the water. Penguins do have wing-bones, though they are flipper-like and exceptionally suited to swimming.
There are just 18 species of penguin worldwide, 4 of these live and nest on and around the Antarctic continent and a further three live and nest on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands, giving seven species that can be considered “Antarctic Penguins.”
All 18 penguin species live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere apart from the Galapagos penguin which just about qualifies as living in the Northern Hemisphere as it spans a narrow band at the equator in the Galapagos Islands.
List of all known Peguins species
- Emperor, Aptenodytes forsteri
- King, Aptenodytes patagonicus
- Adélie, Pygoscelis adeliae
- Gentoo, Pygoscelis Papua
- Chinstrap, Pygoscelis antarcticus
- Northern rockhopper, Eudyptes moseleyi
- Southern rockhopper, Eudyptes chrysocome
- Macaroni, Eudyptes chyrsolophus
- Royal, Eudyptes schlegeli
- Fiordland crested, Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
- Erect-crested, Eudyptes sclateri
- Snares Island, Eudyptes robustus
- Yellow-eyed, Megadyptes antipodes
- Little (also known as fairy or little blue), Eudyptula minor
- Magellanic, Spheniscus magellanicus
- Humboldt, Spheniscus humboldti
- African (formerly known as black-footed), Spheniscus demersus
- Galápagos, Spheniscus mendiculus
In this article, I’ll be talking about the Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri).
Emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri)
The Emperor Penguin is a bird of extremes in pretty much every way. It breeds amid the Antarctic winter and shows numerous adjustments to the freezing condition that these winged animals encounter when rearing.
Description of Emperor Penguin
The Emperor Penguin is greater than some other living penguin, with a height of 1.1 m tall. It is distinguished from the smaller species of Penguin by its size, more powerful stature, and an expansive light yellow association between the orange-yellow ear patches and the light yellow upper bosom. Younger ones looks like grown-ups, however, are smaller and have a white instead of dark chin. Ear patches are whitish, winding up progressively yellow with age.
- Body structure
Elbow and wrist joints are melded – this gives a more unbending forelimb that is created into a paddle for underwater swimming.
Gather air in their feathers by trimming – in the same way as other different flying creatures; Penguins invest a ton of their energy dressing their feathers, quite a bit of this is to cushion the feathers out thus gather air among them, this is done especially before going to the ocean. There are two advantages; firstly it helps protect and besides when the penguin swims especially rapidly this air is discharged as small scale bubbles which grease up the Penguin’s way through the water, thus reducing drag. It has been demonstrated that penguins can leave the water in a burst of speed in this way that is twice their hypothetical swimming pace without it. Especially helpful if being chased by a predator or if a hop to extra height is expected to get onto the ice and out of the water.
Breeds amid the Antarctic winter from March to December. Eggs and chicks are carried on the feet to keep them from coming into contact with the ice. No homes are constructed, which enables the colony to move around and cluster near one another, giving some protection from the freezing condition. The male is exclusively in charge of the two-month incubation of the egg amid the core of winter in practically continuous darkness. On the off chance that the female has not returned before the eggs hatches, the male can feed the chick for a brief span with a “milk” discharged from the throat.
Breeds amid the Antarctic winter in around 30 colonies around the southern parts of the Antarctic mainland, more often than not on quick ice. Most likely depends a considerable measure upon polynias – regions of untamed water encompassed via ocean ice – amid winter.
Little is know about post-breeding dispersal or migration. Adults remain close to the perpetual ice for a large portion of their lives. Adolescents furnished with satellite transmitters, nonetheless, moved as far north as the polar front. Vagrants have turned up on the South Shetland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, the Falklands, South Sandwich Islands, Kerguelen Island, Heard Island, and New Zealand.
They fluctuate between eating Fish, cephalopods, and krill at different degrees, however cephalopods and fish is likely the significant component of the diet, particularly in large quantities.
Nest building – All but king and emperor penguins build a home. However they are generally just a basic heap of stones that are constantly stolen and swapped between the individuals from a settlement when the owners aren’t looking. The homes are somewhat higher than the encompassing area so that if the temperature rises and the snow softens, the home is not overwhelmed with water. Emperor and King penguins keep the egg and afterward the youthful chick on their feet secured by a brood pouch until the point when they are big enough to regulate their temperature.
Breeding Colonies – Penguin colonies are noisy, unruly, busy and smelly issues. The call of all penguins is as melodic and delicate as a whinnying jackass, and the entire domain is normally flooded with penguin guano (luxurious word for bird crap). Each home is a little more than two pecking distance apart so the Penguins can’t reach each other.
Reproduction – Colonies might be of only a modest bunch of breeding sets or up to a large portion of a million birds, and the sky is the limit from there. Numerous species lay two eggs. However, it is uncommon that two chicks are raised, if food is short it will be fed to the strongest and biggest as it were. Male and female guardians share egg and chick obligation. Chicks are fed spewed fish and krill. The chicks leave home (or guardians feet) when they are sufficiently vast to keep their temperature steady, they form creches to give each other mutual help and protection from raiding skuas and furthermore to secure against the wind and cold.
Predators – Penguins main predators are panther seals and Skuas (predators of eggs and unguarded chicks).